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The male gametes are small diet gastritis adalah buy metoclopramide 10 mg mastercard, and orange colored due to gastritis diet xone order metoclopramide from india the presence of a carotenoid pigment gastritis diet лололошка 10mg metoclopramide for sale. Sirenin is a powerful attractant, active at concentrations as low as 10-10 M, but optimally at 10-6 M. Compounds that attract cells at these concentrations can be assumed to alter the swimming pattern by binding to a surface-located receptor (Chapter 10). Although there is no information on this possible receptor, the male gametes are known rapidly to inactivate sirenin, which could aid their movement up a concentration gradient. So this is an example where cells of the same genetic make-up show different biochemical properties because they have been produced in different gametangia, separated by a complete cross wall. They were discovered by growing "strong female" and "strong male" strains in separate dishes of water, then passing the water over colonies of the opposite strain. Once it has been triggered by antheridiol, the male strain produces other steroid hormones, termed oogoniols, which trigger the development of oogonia (sex organs) in the female strain. In normal conditions the antheridial hyphae then grow towards the oogonia, clasp onto them, and produce fertilization tubes to transfer the "male" nuclei into the oogonium (see. Similar hormonal systems might occur in other Oomycota such as Pythium and Phytophthora spp. A notable feature of Pythium and Phytophthora is that they cannot synthesize sterols from nonsterol precursors, and often do not need sterols for somatic growth, but they always require trace amounts of sterols for both sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction. Zygomycota the Zygomycota can be homothallic, or heterothallic with two mating types (termed "plus" and "minus"). One of the roles of the mating-type genes is to regulate the production of hormone precursors (prohormones) from -carotene, which is another product of the isoprenoid pathway already mentioned. This hormonal system is shared by many members of the subgroup Mucorales because, for example, a plus strain of Mucor can elicit a sexual response from a minus strain of Rhizopus, even though the development of a hybrid is blocked at a later stage due to incompatibility. The prohormones are volatile compounds which diffuse towards the opposite mating type; then they are absorbed and converted to active hormones, the trisporic acids, by the complementary enzymes of the opposite strain. Trisporic acids produced by this mutual escalation cause the production of zygophores (aerial sexual branches) which grow towards one another and lead to sexual fusion (see. Ascomycota the Ascomycota usually have two mating types, termed A and a, but a and in Saccharomyces. These mating-type genes are regulatory elements, controlling the activities of other genes, but only the system in yeasts has been well characterized. This is a natural transposition event, which causes the switching of mating type every time a cell produces a bud. The strains produce -factor constitutively and it diffuses to a cells where it is recognized by a specific receptor. The a strain then produces a-factor which diffuses to the strain where it is, again, recognized by a specific receptor. Receptor binding in both cases leads to other changes in the cells: they produce short outgrowths which function as conjugation tubes, and the surfaces of these are covered by a strain-specific glycoprotein, so that when an a cell and an cell make contact they adhere tightly by their complementary agglutinins. At this stage the cell can go on to produce a diploid budding colony or it can undergo meiosis, depending on whether the environmental conditions are suitable for growth. An essentially similar hormone and receptor system to this is found in other yeasts such as Pichia and Hansenula spp, and in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The sex pheromones of several mycelial Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have now been characterized. There is considerable variation in the amino acid substitutions of these pheromones, but their basic structures are similar. Pairing of strains with Different A, different B idiomorphs (dikaryon) Events observed 1 Septal dissolution 2 Nuclear migration 3 Clamp branches arise and fuse with hypha 1 Septa dissolve 2 Nuclei migrate 1 Septa remain intact 2 No nuclear migration 3 Clamp branches arise but do not fuse 1 No septal dissolution 2 No nuclear migration 3 No clamp connections Common A, different B idiomorphs Common B, different A idiomorphs Common A, common B idiomorphs and a successful mating will occur between any two strains that differ from one another at each locus. This greatly increases the chances of finding a mate, compared with fungi that have only two idiomorphs. Strains derived from haploid basidiospores are monokaryons and they can fuse with other compatible monokaryons to form a dikaryon. All subsequent growth involves the synchronous division of the two nuclei in each hyphal compartment and their regular distribution as nuclear pairs throughout the mycelium. In several members of the group this regular arrangement is aided by the production of clamp connections (see. Eventually, the dikaryotic colony will produce a fruitbody, and nuclear fusion and meiosis occur in the basidia. By experimentally pairing strains with the same A or the same B ideomorph, it has been possible to deduce the regulatory roles of the A and B loci (Casselton et al. In pairings of strains with the same A and same B (common A, common B) there is no septal breakdown, no nuclear migration, no dikaryotization, and no clamp connections. Pairings of strains with different A but common B loci show nuclear pairing, synchronous division of the nuclei and formation of clamp branches; but the dolipore septa do not break down, and the clamp branches do not fuse with the parent hypha. Pairings of strains with different B but common A lead to septal dissolution but none of the other events. Septal dissolution coincides with a marked increase in the activity of -glucanase in the hyphae, indicating that the B locus controls the derepression of glucanase genes. Development of fruitbodies the toadstools, brackets and other fruitbodies of Basidiomycota are the largest and most complex differentiated structures in the fungal kingdom. Here we consider one example where a start has been made to dissect this process at the biochemical and molecular level, and we end with a discussion of commercial mushroom production because of its economic importance. Further development from the primordia occurs when carbon nutrients are depleted from the medium, and is then fuelled by carbon reserves within the mycelium. Early in this process the mycelial storage compounds such as glycogen are converted to sugars, which are translocated to the developing primordia. Then, as the sugar levels in the hyphae decline, the hyphal walls begin to break down and the breakdown products are translocated to the primordia. The wall glucans seem to provide the major source of sugars, because fruitbody development is associated with a marked rise in glucanase activity in the mycelia. We have already seen that synthesis of this enzyme is derepressed by the B mating-type locus, but it is still subject to catabolite repression by sugars; so its generalized activity in the hyphae, as opposed to its localized activity in degrading septa, depends on depletion of the mycelial sugar reserves. The breakdown of hyphal walls to recycle nutrients for differentiation is, in fact, quite common in fungi. The breakdown of wall glucans also fuels the developing ascocarps of Emericella nidulans.

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If the suggested mechanism is correct gastritis symptoms loose stools purchase 10 mg metoclopramide free shipping, other proton pump inhibitors are likely to gastritis diet музыка order metoclopramide online from canada affect betacarotene absorption similarly gastritis healing order metoclopramide with visa. Importance and management Evidence for an interaction between tobacco smoking and betacarotene is limited, but a clinically significant effect of tobacco smoking on absorption of betacarotene supplementation seems unlikely. However, unexpectedly, well-designed studies have found a slight increased risk of lung cancer in smokers taking betacarotene supplements. There is no clear explanation for this, and there is much debate about whether this is a true effect. Until more is known it may be prudent for smokers to avoid betacarotene supplements, and to counsel the patient on smoking cessation and the health benefits of consuming five portions of fruit and vegetables daily as part of a balanced diet. Effects of supplemental carotene, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on serum carotenoids in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. B Betacarotene + Tobacco There is a slight increased risk of lung cancer in smokers taking betacarotene supplements. Note that the synonym Blueberry has also been used, but the name Blueberry is the more commonly accepted name for the North American native plants such as Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (Lowbush Blueberry) and Vaccinium corymbosum L. Pharmacokinetics For general information about the pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins, see under flavonoids, page 186. The bilberry extract inhibited estrone-3-sulfate uptake by about 75%, which was considered to be a potent effect. However, no clinical reports of an interaction between bilberry and these or other drugs appear to have been published. Constituents the berries contain anthocyanins, mainly glucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, petunidin and peonidin. Bilberry berries also contain flavonoids (including catechins, quercetin-3-glucuronide and hyperoside), and vitamin C. For information on the interactions of individual flavonoids found in bilberry, see under flavonoids, page 186. Use and indications Traditionally bilberry has been used to treat diarrhoea, haemorrhoids and venous insufficiency, gastrointestinal inflammation and urinary complaints. Use and indications Bistort is traditionally used as an astringent and antiinflammatory agent. For information on the pharmacokinetics of individual flavonoids found in bistort, see under flavonoids, page 186. Constituents the bistort root and rhizome contain polyphenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids. For information on the interactions of individual flavonoids found in bistort, see under flavonoids, page 186. Constituents Bitter orange contains the sympathomimetic alkaloid oxedrine (synephrine), flavonoids (hesperidin, naringenin, tangeretin and others; often referred to as citrus bioflavonoids), and natural coumarins (umbelliferone, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, and the furanocoumarins 6,7-dihydroxybergamottin and bergapten). Some sources standardise the flowers to flavonoid content, expressed as naringin, and the peel to essential oil content. The juice may also inhibit P-glycoprotein transport (see dextromethorphan, page 69). For information on the pharmacokinetics of individual flavonoids present in bitter orange, see flavonoids, page 186, and for the pharmacokinetics of individual furanocoumarins, see under natural coumarins, page 297. Interactions overview the juice of bitter orange has been used in some drug interaction studies (as a comparator to grapefruit juice, page 235). Information from these studies has been included here, but note that it should not be directly extrapolated to herbal medicines containing bitter orange, because some differences in interaction potential have been seen. A bitter orange decoction increased ciclosporin levels in animals, whereas the juice of bitter orange does not appear to interact clinically. The juice of bitter orange does not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of indinavir, but it may raise dextromethorphan and felodipine levels. For a possible interaction of supplements containing bitter orange with caffeine, resulting in adverse cardiac effects, see Caffeine + Herbal medicines; Bitter orange, page 101. For specific interactions of citrus flavonoids such as naringenin, see flavonoids, page 186, and for citrus furanocoumarins such as bergapten, see natural coumarins, page 297. Use and indications Bitter orange is traditionally used as a carminative and for other digestive disorders. It is also said to possess antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial properties. Bitter-orange extract is included in some herbal anorectic preparations as it contains oxedrine, which is claimed to increase metabolism; however, cardiovascular adverse effects are associated with this constituent (see under Caffeine + Herbal medicines; Bitter orange, page 101). The flowers have been used as a sedative, and the peel and the oils are used widely as flavourings in foods and conventional medicines. The juice of bitter orange has been used in studies of drug metabolism as a comparator to grapefruit juice, but it is not used as a medicine or beverage. Clinical evidence In a study in 12 healthy subjects, a bitter orange supplement, standardised to synephrine 4%, was given at a dose of 350 mg twice daily for 28 days with a single 250-mg dose of chlorzoxazone given before and at the end of the treatment with bitter orange. The metabolism of chlorzoxazone was not affected by the concurrent use of bitter orange. The supplement was analysed and found to contain the stated amount of synephrine (equivalent to a daily dose of about 30 mg), and none of the furanocoumarin, 6,7-dihydrobergamottin. Note that, in the clinical study, the furanocoumarin 6,7-dihydroxybergamottin did not interact. What is known suggests that the juice of bitter orange is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of ciclosporin. However, the animal study suggests that a decoction of bitter orange may increase ciclosporin levels and therefore some caution may be warranted if patients taking ciclosporin wish to take bitter orange supplements. Careful consideration should be given to the risks of using the supplement; in patients receiving ciclosporin for severe indications, such as transplantation, it seems unlikely that the benefits will outweigh the risks. If concurrent use is undertaken then close monitoring of ciclosporin levels seems warranted. Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis. B Bitter orange + Dextromethorphan Bitter orange juice increases the absorption of dextromethorphan. Clinical evidence In a study, 11 healthy subjects were given a single 30-mg dose of dextromethorphan hydrobromide at bedtime, followed by 200 mL of water or freshly squeezed bitter orange juice. Measurement of the amount of dextromethorphan and its metabolites in the urine indicated that the bioavailability of dextromethorphan was increased by more than fourfold by bitter orange juice. Dextromethorphan levels were still raised 3 days later, indicating a sustained effect of the juice. How the effects of the juice of bitter orange relate to the peel of bitter orange, which is one of the parts used medicinally, is unclear. The effect of grapefruit juice and Bitter orange + Ciclosporin Bitter orange juice does not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of ciclosporin in humans. Clinical evidence In a randomised, crossover study, 7 healthy subjects were given a single 7.

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This occurs through a direct effect of insulin on the liver62 gastritis diet 360 purchase metoclopramide master card, as well as by indirect effects of insulin on substrate availability63 gastritis symptoms in elderly discount metoclopramide on line. Because visceral fat is less sensitive to gastritis diet ералаш cheap 10 mg metoclopramide visa insulin than subcutaneous fat, even after a meal there is little suppression of lipolysis by the hormone in this fat depot. The resulting direct flux of fatty acids derived from these fat cells through the portal vein to the liver can stimulate glucose production, thus providing a signal for both insulin action and insulin resistance in the liver. Insulin directly controls the activities of a set of metabolic enzymes by phosphorylation or dephosphorylation and also regulates the expression of genes encoding hepatic enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis65. It inhibits the transcription of the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, the rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis66. The hormone also decreases transcription of the genes encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6phosphatase, and increases transcription of glycolytic enzymes such as glucokinase and pyruvate kinase, and lipogenic enzymes such as fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. In adipocytes, glucose is stored primarily as lipid, owing to increased uptake of glucose and activation of lipid synthetic enzymes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Insulin also profoundly inhibits lipolysis in adipocytes, primarily through inhibition of the enzyme hormonesensitive lipase71. Genetic defects in the insulin receptor are relatively rare, but represent the most severe forms of insulin resistance, and are exemplified by leprechaunism, the Rabson Mendenhall Syndrome, and the type A syndrome of insulin resistance74. Type 2 diabetes is polygenic and may involve polymorphisms in multiple genes encoding the proteins involved in insulin signalling, insulin secretion and intermediary metabolism75. Targeted deletions of the components of insulin signalling in vivo using homologous recombination have yielded some insight into the complexity of these mechanisms. Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor has also produced often surprising results. As noted above, despite recognition that insulin stimulates glucose uptake primarily in muscle, mice with a knockout of the muscle insulin receptor have normal glucose tolerance2. Mice with a knockout of the fat-specific insulin receptor also have normal glucose tolerance, whereas the liver-specific insulin-receptor knockout shows both impaired glucose tolerance and decreased insulin clearance with marked hyperinsulinaemia62. Perhaps the most surprising results, however, have come from studies of mice with knockouts of the -cell-specific insulin receptor and neural/brain-specific insulin receptor79. The former exhibit a marked defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that observed in type 2 diabetes, whereas the latter exhibit increased food intake, mild adiposity, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridaemia, as well as reduced fertility due to hypothalamic hypogonadism. Taken together, these findings suggest a unifying hypothesis for type 2 diabetes in which insulin resistance in classic target tissues, such as liver, muscle and fat, coupled with insulin resistance in -cell, brain and other tissues, combine to produce the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The fat cell regulates insulin sensitivity Free fatty acids Adipose tissue has a special role in insulin resistance. Insulin is secreted from the -cells of the pancreas in response to elevations in plasma glucose. The hormone decreases glucose production from the liver, and increases glucose uptake, utilization and storage in fat and muscle. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown a close correlation between intramyocellular triglyceride content and whole-body insulin resistance in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes84. Adipokines potential role of resistin is further complicated by uncertainty about existence of a human homologue of the hormone. Perspectives There has been considerable progress over the past few years in unravelling the mechanisms of insulin action, and the molecular defects that give rise to insulin resistance. Recent advances dissecting the signalling pathways, cellular architecture and spatial compartmentalization of proteins, coupled with the sophisticated genetic analysis of the system, have yielded quantum leaps in our insight into how proteins and tissues interact to control glucose and lipid metabolism. But many gaps remain in our understanding of these processes, and in the pathophysiology underling insulin resistance. We need to define the missing steps in the insulin-signalling network, elucidate the mechanisms of cross-talk in the system, and determine the genetic susceptibility of insulin resistance and the interactions between genes and environment. Such studies will provide new insights into diabetes and insulin resistance, perhaps even allowing a more focused and individualized approach to therapy or prevention of these disorders. Glucose transport and glucose transporters in muscle and their metabolic regulation. Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. Tissue-specific versus generalized gene targeting of the igf1 and igf1r genes and their roles in insulin-like growth factor physiology. Insulin resistance and growth retardation in mice lacking insulin receptor substrate-1. Mice lacking insulin receptor substrate 4 exhibit mild defects in growth, reproduction, and glucose homeostasis. Essential role of insulin receptor substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Ikk. Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene. Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase activity is blocked by wortmannin and rapamycin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: evidence for the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and p70 ribosomal protein-S6 kinase. Insulin receptor substrate 1 binds two novel splice variants of the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in muscle and brain. In addition to its role as a storage depot for lipid, the fat cell produces and secretes a number of hormones, collectively called adipokines, which may profoundly influence metabolism and energy expenditure. Leptin is a member of the cytokine family of hormones that is produced by adipose tissue and acts on receptors in the central nervous system and other sites to inhibit food intake and promote energy expenditure. Insulin resistance characterizes states of severe leptin deficiency or resistance, such as ob/ob or db/db mice, or genetic models of lipoatrophic diabetes. In some of these, administration of exogenous leptin improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity independently of effects on food intake, probably by affecting neuroendocrine pathways that modulate insulin action in the liver88,89, although this cytokine might also have direct effects on hepatic cells90. Adiponectin (also called Acrp30 or adipoQ) is a fat cell-derived peptide possessing a collagenous domain at the amino terminus and a globular domain that shares homology with complement factor C1q91. In lipoatrophic mice, insulin resistance is reversed by the combination of physiological doses of adiponectin and leptin, but only partially by either adiponectin or leptin alone. In isolated hepatocytes, adiponectin increased the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production93. A recent genome-wide scan in humans also mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27 in a region near the adiponectin gene94. Resistin is the most recently discovered peptide hormone to be secreted by adipocytes. Initial studies suggested that resistin might cause insulin resistance, as levels were increased in obese mice and reduced by antidiabetic drugs of the thiazolidinedione class. Furthermore, administration of antiresistin antibody seemed to improve blood sugar and insulin action in mice with diet-induced obesity. Structural organization and alternative splicing of the murine phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85 alpha gene. Hypoglycaemia, liver necrosis and perinatal death in mice lacking all isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85. Increased insulin sensitivity and hypoglycaemia in mice lacking the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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Instead gastritis diet украина purchase metoclopramide us, we should regard many fungi as having several nuclei sharing a common pool of cytoplasm gastritis que es metoclopramide 10mg lowest price. This has important implications for the genetic fluidity of fungi chronic gastritis shortness of breath cheap generic metoclopramide canada, discussed in Chapter 9. This arrangement is ensured by a special type of septum, termed the dolipore septum (see later), which has only a narrow pore, too small to allow nuclei to pass through. The hypha as part of a colony Fungal colonies typically develop from a single germinating spore, which produces a germ tube (a young hypha) that grows and branches behind the tip. As the original hypha and the first-order branches grow, they produce further branches behind their tips. These branches diverge from one another until, eventually, the colony develops a characteristic circular outline. Then, in the older parts of a colony where nutrients have been depleted, many fungi produce narrow hyphal branches that grow towards one another instead of diverging, and fuse by tip-to-tip contact, involving localized breakdown of their walls. This process of hyphal anastomosis creates a network for the pooling and remobilization of protoplasm to produce chlamydospores or other, larger differentiated structures (Chapter 5). The broken lines in (e) represent narrow anastomosing hyphae near the center of the colony. The upper hypha had stopped growing at t 0 but began to produce a branch (arrowhead) at t6 in response to the approaching hyphal tip. Some other fungi are characteristically dimorphic (with two shapes): they switch between a hyphal and a yeast form in response to changes in environmental conditions (Chapter 5). A good example is the genus Candida (Ascomycota), including the common species Candida albicans, which can be a significant pathogen of humans (Chapter 16). Therefore, yeasts are not fundamentally different from hyphal fungi; they merely represent a different growth form, adapted to spread in nutrientrich water films and similar types of environment. The vacuole and the lipid bodies are often the only structures clearly visible the structure of yeasts Several fungi grow as budding, uninucleate yeasts, rather than as hyphae. Common examples include the bread yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ascomycota. Different stages in the budding process are labeled from 1 (nonbudding cell) to 5 (cell separation). During this process a small outgrowth appears at the bud site, then the bud progressively elongates before expanding into a rounded form, by synthesis of new wall components over the whole of the cell surface. When the bud has nearly reached its final size, the nucleus of the mother cell migrates towards the bud site and divides, so that one nucleus remains in the mother cell and a second nucleus enters the daughter cell. In Saccharomyces this occurs when a ring of chitin is produced at the "neck" site, and this ring of chitin expands inwards until it becomes a complete chitin plate between the mother and daughter cell. Then other wall materials are deposited on each side of this chitin plate, and the cells separate by enzymic cleavage of the wall between the chitin plate and the daughter cell. This process leaves a bud scar on the mother cell and a birth scar on the daughter cell. These scars are inconspicuous by normal light microscopy, but the chitin plate on the mother cell can be seen clearly if yeasts are treated with a fluorescent brightener such as Cellufluor (calcofluor), which binds to chitin and fluoresces blue when the cell is observed under a fluorescence microscope. By using fluorescent dyes that bind to chitin, we can count the number of bud scars on the cell surface. We return to this topic in Chapter 4, because some important advances have been made in understanding growth polarity, based on the use of cell-cycle mutants in the laboratory of the Nobel Laureate, Sir Paul Nurse. The taxonomy of yeasts is complicated by the lack of obvious morphological features, so in recent years it has relied heavily on molecular approaches. There are probably many hundreds, if not thousands, of yeast species that have yet to be clearly demarcated and described. They are also distinct from the "fission yeasts" such as Schizosaccharomyces species, which do not bud but instead form filaments that fragment by septation into brick-like cells (arthrospores, or arthroconidia). The wall also can have surface components that mediate the interactions of fungi with other organisms, including plant and animal hosts. All these features require a detailed understanding of wall structure and architecture. The major wall components the primary approach to investigating the wall composition of fungi is to disrupt fungal cells and purify the walls by using detergents and other mild chemical treatments, then use acids, alkalis and enzymes to degrade the walls sequentially. Although relatively few fungi have been analysed in detail, these treatments show that fungal walls are predominantly composed of polysaccharides, with lesser amounts of proteins and other components. The major wall components can be categorized into two major types: (i) the structural (fibrillar) polymers that consist predominantly of straight-chain molecules, providing structural rigidity, and (ii) the matrix components that cross-link the fibrils and that coat and embed the structural polymers. The main wall polysaccharides differ between the major fungal groups, as shown in Table 3. The Chytridiomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota typically have chitin and glucans (polymers of glucose) as their major wall polysaccharides. Chitin consists of long, straight chains of -1,4 linked N-acetylglucosamine Fungal walls and wall components In recent years it has become clear that fungal walls serve many important roles, quite apart from the obvious role of providing a structural barrier. Taxonomic group Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Oomycota (not true fungi) Structural (fibrillar) components Chitin Glucan Chitin Chitosan Chitin b-(13), b-(16)-glucan Chitin b-(13), b-(16)-glucan b-(13), b-(16)-glucan Cellulose Matrix components Glucan The Zygomycota typically have a mixture of chitin and chitosan (a poorly acetylated or nonacetylated form of chitin; Chapter 7), polymers of uronic acids such as glucuronic acid, and mannoproteins. The Oomycota (which are not true fungi) have little chitin, and instead they have a mixture of a cellulose-like -1,4linked glucan and other glucans. Having made these points, it is important to recognize that the wall composition of a fungus is not fixed, but can change substantially at different stages of the life cycle. This is also true for many dimorphic fungi, which can grow as either hyphae or budding yeast-like cells (Chapter 5). For this, Hunsley & Burnett developed an elegently simple technique which they termed enzymatic dissection. They mechanically disrupted fungal hyphae so that only the walls remained, and then treated the walls with combinations and sequences of different enzymes, coupling this with electron microscopy to detect any changes that the enzyme treatments had caused. If, for example, the surface appearance of the wall changed after treatment with a particular enzyme "X," then the substrate of "X" is likely to be the outermost wall component. So, by using various sequences and combinations of enzymes it was possible to strip away the major wall components and to see their relationships to one another.

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It was developed in the late 1970s and is used primarily in glasshouses for the control of aphids on potted chrysanthemums and (using a different strain) for control of whitefly on cucumbers and other indoor-grown crops gastritis diet honey discount metoclopramide 10 mg line. For these purposes the fungus is produced as fermenter-grown conidia because it is one of the relatively few fungi that produce conidia readily in submerged liquid culture gastritis quick fix proven 10mg metoclopramide. Like all the entomopathogenic fungi gastritis diet green tea buy metoclopramide 10mg with mastercard, it needs a high relative humidity during the germination and penetration phases, but then the humidity can be reduced without affecting its parasitism. Hall & Burges (1979) showed that this was not related to inherent differences in susceptibility of the three aphid species. Several other mycoinsecticides have been registered commercially, and some of these are shown in Table 15. In this respect it is important to note that different strains or species can have quite different host ranges, so the activity of any one strain cannot be used to predict the activities of other stains within this highly variable group of fungi. It does so by growing as an endophyte in the maize tissues, similar to the endophytes of plants discussed in Chapter 14. For example, the nematode population in European grasslands is estimated to range from 1. Most nematodes are saprotrophs that feed on bacteria or other small organic particles, but some are parasites of animals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis which invades human muscle tissue), and some are parasites of crop plants. The important nematodes of crop plants include the rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. The chemicals that can be used to control parasitic nematodes in living plants or organic matter are extremely toxic and thus environmentally undesirable. For this reason interest has focused on nematophagous (nematodeeating) fungi and other parasites of nematodes that might be exploited as biological control agents. Nematophagous fungi are common in organic-rich environments, and they include representatives of almost all the major fungal groups (Table 15. The nematode-trapping fungi the nematode-trapping fungi are predatory species which capture nematodes by specialized devices of various types: adhesive hyphae (Stylopage and Cystopage; Zygomycota), adhesive nets. Fungus Chytridiomycota Catenaria anguillulae Oomycota Nematophthora gynophila Myzocytium humicola Zygomycota Stylopage and Cystopage spp. All these fungi are considered to be essentially saprotrophic because they grow on a range of organic substrates, including cellulose, in laboratory culture, and some are wood-degrading members of the Basidiomycota. However, their specialized trapping devices clearly indicate that they are adapted to exploit nematodes. In some cases they produce the traps during normal growth in culture, but in other cases. This can be mimicked by supplying small peptides or combinations of amino acids such as phenylalanine and valine. It seems likely that the nematode-trapping fungi exploit nematodes mainly as a source of nitrogen, which could often be in short supply in the habitats where the nematodetrapping fungi grow, especially in woody materials. For example, the initial adhesion is almost instantaneous and effectively irreversible. Even when the nematode thrashes to free itself from the fungus, the trapping organ will break from the hyphae and remain attached to the nematode, then initiate infection. Yet, the trapping organs are not "sticky" in the general sense, because they do not accumulate soil debris, etc. Instead, the adhesive could be a lectin-like material that binds to specific sugar components of the nematode surface. Presumably, this sugar derivative binds to the fungal lectin, blocking the adhesion process. Panagrellus is known to have N-acetylgalactosamine components on its surface, because it binds to commercially available lectins. These studies indicate that Arthrobotrys conioides has a lectin that recognizes -d-glucose or -d-mannose residues, Monacrosporium eudermatum has a lectin that binds to l-fucose, and Drechmeria coniospora has a lectin that binds to sialic acid. The trapping of nematodes by some wood-decay fungi has focused attention on the role that nematodes might have as supplementary nitrogen sources, overcoming the critically low nitrogen content of wood (Chapter 11). The endoparasitic fungi In contrast to the nematode-trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi initiate infections from spores that adhere to a nematode surface, and then germinate to infect the host. Again, lectins seem to be involved in the initial adhesion process, but the endoparasitic fungi only produce detachable, adhesive spores, and when they have colonized and absorbed the host contents they grow out into soil and produce further spores to repeat the infection cycle. The endoparasitic fungi differ from the trapping fungi because they seem to depend on nematodes as their main or only food source in nature, even though many of them can be grown in laboratory culture media. Consistent with this, they show a strong density dependence on their hosts (Jaffee 1992); in other words, the population density of these fungi is dependent on the population density of the nematode. In contrast to this, the zoosporic fungus Catenaria anguillulae (Chytridiomycota), which also can attack nematodes, is one of the least specialized examples of a nematode-control agent because it grows on several types of organic material in nature, including liver fluke eggs. Also, its zoospores do not settle easily on moving nematodes in water films, and instead it accumulates at the body orifices of immobilized or dying nematodes (see. This contrasts with Myzocytium humicola (Oomycota) which also produces zoospores but these spores encyst soon after release and then germinate to produce an adhesive bud which attaches to a passing nematode. Then the adhered spores germinate rapidly and the hyphae fill the host, killing it within a few days. Finally, the hyphae grow out through the host wall and produce a further batch of spores. Parasites of nematode eggs and cysts Cyst nematodes are important pests of several crops, including cereals, potato and sugar beet in Europe. They are characterized by the fact that the female nematode penetrates the root just behind the root tip and lodges with her head inside. The host cells respond by swelling into nutrient-rich "giant cells" from which the nematode taps the host nutrients. As the female grows her body distends into a lemon shape which ruptures the root cortex so that her rear protrudes from the root. Then she is fertilized by wandering males, and her uterus fills with eggs which develop into larvae.

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Most Pythium and Phytophthora species show taxis to gastritis symptoms spanish order metoclopramide 10mg amex the roots of both host and nonhost plants gastritis blog order metoclopramide without a prescription, but a few interesting examples of host-specific taxis have been reported gastritis symptom of celiac disease purchase 10 mg metoclopramide amex. For example, the host-specific pathogen Phytophthora sojae shows chemotaxis in vitro to the flavonoids daidzein and genistein, which are known to be present in the soybean host. Similarly, Aphanomyces cochlioides shows strong chemotaxis to the flavonoid "cochliophilin A" from spinach plants. It should not be assumed that these compounds are the only factors involved in attraction to the host roots, but the findings are notable because they parallel the behavior of Rhizobium spp. The next phase of the sequence seems to involve recognition of a host surface component, because the zoospores move over the host surface, with their flagella in contact with this. Some zoosporic fungi might have specific host surface requirements, but often they respond to pectin and other polyuronates. Recognition of a host surface component (perhaps coupled with a high concentration of root-derived nutrients) leads to orientated encystment, with the (a) (b). In this case the root had been coated with a double layer of calcium alginate gel to block any specific receptor compounds on the root surface. During this process the flagella are withdrawn but the zoospore remains adhered to the host by secretion of an adhesive. This stage of orientated encystment is important, because the zoospores of Pythium and Phytophthora spp. If the spore were to settle in a different orientation the germ-tube would not penetrate the host. There can also be a degree of host-specific encystment at this stage, because the Pythium spp. Receptors on the flagella probably are involved in this process, because monoclonal antibodies that bind to both flagella of Phytophthora zoospores cause rapid encystment in vitro, whereas other monoclonal antibodies that bind to only the anterior or the posterior flagellum do not cause rapid encystment. Cyst germination can be studied in vitro by agitating a zoospore suspension, causing the spores to encyst, and then adding individual amino acids or sugars to trigger germination. However, cyst germination in vivo (on the host plant) is suggested to be an autonomous process, triggered by events in the earliest stages of encystment. Consistent with this, major transmembrane fluxes of calcium occur in the early stages of encystment, and seem to coordinate cyst germination. The zoospore suspension was then vortexed (70-second interruption) to induce zoospore encystment and the external Ca2+ measurements were resumed. The trace shows that zoospore encystment caused an immediate drop in external Ca2+ (signifying Ca2+ uptake by zoospores), then a progressive Ca2+ release from the cysts, which germinated within 90 minutes. In all three types of organism the zoospore shows precise orientation during encystment on a host surface, related to the fact that these zoospores have a predetermined site from which they penetrate the host. Then a pre-formed bullet-like stylet is shot through the host wall and the contents of the cyst enter the host cell as a wall-less plasmodium. Again, this provides evidence of precisely orientated encystment, because the stylet must be positioned correctly to ensure that the protoplast will be delivered through the host cell wall. In normal conditions, when zoospores encyst on a host surface they germinate within 20 or 30 minutes by the emergence of a germ-tube, which usually penetrates the host directly. If a zoospore does not locate a suitable host after several hours of swimming, it encysts before its nutrient reserves are depleted and the cyst then releases a further zoospore. This process of repeated emergence can occur two or three times before the zoospore exhausts its nutrient reserves. Zoospores as vectors of plant viruses About 20 plant viruses are currently known to be transmitted by zoospores, and in some cases this is their main or only means of transmission (Table 10. These zoospore vectors belong to three genera: Olpidium (Chytridiomycota), Polymyxa (plasmodiophorids), and Spongospora (plasmodiophorids). The feature that makes them significant as vectors is that the zoospore encysts on a root and then germinates to release a naked protoplast into the plant. Any virus particles that bind to the surface of the swimming zoospore will therefore be introduced into the host. The swimming zoospores acquire these viruses from soil when the virus particles adhere to a Parallel development among zoosporic species Many of the features described above for Oomycota are also found in other zoosporic organisms, but the details vary. For example, zoospores of Oomycota always dock onto a host or other surface with the flagella and ventral groove located next to the surface. The Chytridiomycota always seem to dock "head-on," with the flagellum orientated away from the host. Plasmodiophorids show yet another variation: their zoospores always seem to dock with the two flagella orientated away from the host. Vicia faba Polymyxa graminis Polymyxa betae Spongospora subterranea Polymyxa graminis Polymyxa graminis Polymyxa graminis Hordeum Triticum Triticum Avena Oryza Polymyxa Polymyxa Polymyxa Polymyxa Polymyxa graminis graminis graminis graminis graminis Nicotiana spp. The virus presumably remains on the plasma membrane when the zoospore encysts, and will later be carried on the membrane of the protoplast that enters the host. By contrast, the zoospores of Polymyxa and Spongospora cannot acquire viruses by swimming in virus suspensions; instead, they acquire the virus inside an infected plant. Many of these viruses are of a distinct type, termed furoviruses (fungally-transmitted rod-shaped viruses), and they have no other natural means of transmission. They include some of the most economically important soil-borne viruses, such as beet necrotic yellow vein virus, soil-borne wheat mosaic virus, and potato mop-top virus. But they are carried internally in the resting spores, which can persist in soil for 20 years or more. So, once established in a field site, these viruses are almost impossible to eradicate. Further details of the zoospore-vectored viruses can be found in Adams (1991), Hiruki & Teakle (1987), and Brunt & Richards (1989). Dispersal of airborne spores Most terrestrial fungi produce airborne spores that are dispersed by wind or rain-splash. These are the spores of most significance in plant pathology and for allergies and fungal infections of humans. In this section we consider how spores become airborne (take-off), how they remain airborne (flight), and how they are finally deposited in appropriate environments for future development (landing). These are features of fundamental significance in understanding the ecology of airborne fungi. Above this boundary layer the air becomes progressively more turbulent in local eddies, until there is net movement of the air mass which can carry spores to a new site. So the fungi that grow in these different types of environment require different strategies for getting their spores airborne. Often they involve adaptations of the spore-bearing structures rather than of the spores themselves. Fungi that grow on leaf surfaces sometimes produce chains of spores from a basal cell so that the mature spores are pushed upwards through the boundary layer as more spores are produced at the base of the chain.

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Beneficial effects of pomegranate juice on oxidation-sensitive genes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity at sites of perturbed shear stress gastritis diet 5 small buy generic metoclopramide on line. Dietary blueberry attenuates whole-body insulin resistance in high fat-fed mice by reducing adipocyte death and its inflammatory sequelae hronicni gastritis symptoms discount 10 mg metoclopramide otc. Plant sterol-fortified orange juice effectively lowers cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy individuals gastritis x ray 10 mg metoclopramide for sale. Thermal degradation of antioxidant micronutrients in citrus juice: kinetics and newly formed compounds. Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Gene expression profiling reveals new protective roles for vitamin C in human skin cells. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Resveratrol inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via estrogen receptor dependent nitric oxide production. Fruit juice intake predicts increased adiposity gain in children from low-income families: weight status-by environment interaction. Metabolomics provide new insight on the metabolism of dietary phytochemicals in rats. Anti-cariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea). Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Role of marginal vitamin C deficiency in atherogenesis: in vivo models and clinical studies. Factors associated with early childhood caries incidence among high caries-risk children. A Pilot Study of the Photoprotective Effects of Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations on Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Overall dietary polyphenol intake in a bowl of strawberries: the influence of Fragaria spp. Orange juice or fructose intake does not induce oxidative and inflammatory response. Fresh israeli jaffa sweetie juice consumption improves lipid metabolism and increases antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic patients suffering from coronary artery disease: studies in vitro and in humans and positive changes in albumin and fibrinogen fractions. Red grapefruit positively influences serum triglyceride level in patients suffering from coronary atherosclerosis: studies in vitro and in humans. Hesperidin and naringin, two main flavonoids of citrus fruits, improve bone metabolism in senescent male rats. Increased bioavailability of hesperetin7-glucoside compared with hesperidin results in more efficient prevention of bone loss in adult ovariectomised rats. Flavanones protect from arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women consuming grapefruit juice for 6 mo: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Chondroprotective effects of pomegranate juice on monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis of the knee joint of mice. Associations between dietary flavonoid intakes and bone health in a Scottish population. Cranberry juice constituents impair lymphoma growth and augment the generation of antilymphoma antibodies in syngeneic mice. Hohensinn B, Haselgrubler R, Muller U, Stadlbauer V, Lanzerstorfer P, Lirk G, Hoglinger O, Weghuber J. Sustaining elevated levels of nitrite in the oral cavity through consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice in young healthy adults reduces salivary pH. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established. Nutrients and phytochemicals: from bioavailability to bioefficacy beyond antioxidants. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its relation to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adolescents. The protective effects of toothpaste against erosion by orange juice: studies in situ and in vitro. Hesperidin inhibits ovariectomized-induced osteopenia and shows differential effects on bone mass and strength in young and adult intact rats. A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health. Oral and Dental Health: Prevention of Dental Caries, Erosion, Gingivitis and Periodontitis, 2009. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentration and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Naringenin enhances insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and improves the cellular actions of insulin in a dietary model of metabolic syndrome. Chronic consumption of flavanone-rich orange juice is associated with cognitive benefits: an 8-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy older adults. Lack of effect of acute oral ingestion of vitamin C on oxidative stress, arterial stiffness or blood pressure in healthy subjects. Influence of Cranberry Juice on GlucanMediated Processes Involved in Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development. Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Uptake and bioavailability of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from grape/blueberry juice and smoothie in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of low-grade inflammation by anthocyanins from grape extract in an in vitro epithelial-endothelial co-culture model. Concord grape juice, cognitive function, and driving performance: a 12-wk, placebocontrolled, randomized crossover trial in mothers of preteen children. Limited antioxidant effect after consumption of a single dose of tomato sauce by young males, despite a rise in plasma lycopene. Cariogenicity of soft drinks, milk and fruit juice in low-income african-american children: a longitudinal study. The Role of Dietary Polyphenols in the Moderation of the Inflammatory Response in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer. Flavonoids and cognitive function: a review of human randomized controlled trial studies and recommendations for future studies. Vitamin C enters mouse T cells as dehydroascorbic acid in vitro and does not recapitulate in vivo vitamin C effects. Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection.

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Eslicarbazepine acetate: a double-blind gastritis body aches buy metoclopramide from india, add-on gastritis diet сонник purchase cheapest metoclopramide and metoclopramide, placebo-controlled exploratory trial in adult patients with partialonset seizures gastritis diet однок order 10mg metoclopramide. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in adults. Transitioning pediatric patients receiving ketogenic diets for epilepsy into adulthood. Lipids should be monitored, but in most cases persistent lipid elevations can be managed with diet adjustments. Efficacy and safety of oral lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial-onset seizures. Transition for patients with epilepsy due to metabolic and mitochondrial disorders. The ketogenic diet as a treatment option in adults with chronic refractory epilepsy: efficacy and tolerability in clinical practice. Determinants of health-related quality of life in pharmacoresistant epilepsy: results from a large multicenter study of consecutively enrolled patients using validated quantitative assessments. Levetiracetam add-on for drugresistant focal epilepsy: an updated Cochrane review. Ketogenic diet treatment in adults with refractory epilepsy: a prospective pilot study. Low-glycemicindex treatment: a liberalized ketogenic diet for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Ketogenic diet therapies for adults with epilepsy: feasibility and classification of response. The treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus: a critical review of available therapies and a clinical treatment protocol. The ketogenic diet in treatment of two adults with prolonged nonconvulsive status epilepticus. For many years the implementation of the diet remained in large parts unchanged from its initial conception by Wilder (Livingston, 1951; Wilder, 1921). Management was based on our clinical practice, strongly tied to its history of "fasting, calorie and fluid restrictions. Most of the data analyzed consist of retrospective chart reviews but there is some support from randomized trials. This served as a basis from which future improvements to dietary therapies were made (Kossoff et al. It should never be confused with weight loss diets that individuals can manage safely themselves. Dietary therapies for epilepsy require periodic physical examination and laboratory testing to remain safe, promote general health, and prevent side effects. This is particularly true in children, whose nutritional needs are continuously changing during childhood and adolescence. Younger children, particularly infants, need more frequent (even monthly) evaluations to keep up with their nutritional needs. For a small program, this comprises, at a minimum, an epileptologist and a dietitian. For truly comprehensive care and for a larger program, this team is expanded to also include a nurse and social worker. Each team member contributes unique knowledge to optimize the care for these children and will grow as the number of patients in the dietary treatment program increases. Any institution that supports dietary therapies must also provide pharmacy services to find medications with the lowest carbohydrate content, a very important task, as the content in medication is not routinely reported by industry and is subject to frequent change. Access to other subspecialties such as gastroenterology and nutrition, nephrology, urology, endocrinology, a feeding team, and bone health experts is also essential to provide truly comprehensive care. The children started on these diets today rarely have just "treatment resistant epilepsy" but carry many additional diagnoses: cerebral palsy, developmental disability, intellectual disability, feeding difficulties some with g-tube dependencies, behavioral difficulties, autism spectrum disorder, and genetic conditions. Parents are important partners, and essential to the success of the diet and a keto program. They can be effective coaches of other parents, assisting them with nonmedical information, and also become trained educators as the keto-community grows to include school, nursing agencies, and so forth (Chee et al. A well prepared admission and a well educated parent is the best assurance for success. In the following section I will review the various types of initiation methods that have been used and discuss both their benefits and drawbacks. In-Patient versus Out-Patient Initiation the classic ketogenic diet created by Wilder, and advocated by Johns Hopkins University (Freeman et al. The child is closely observed by nursing staff and physicians, and interventions for hypoglycemia, acidosis, dehydration, vomiting, weight loss, or feeding intolerances can be instituted in a timely fashion to minimize any complications. Although seizures more often improve during the admission they can worsen from the stress of switching metabolic substrate. Some dietary treatment programs offer separate education classes to assist the families in their decision to try dietary therapies. These include inborn errors of metabolism related to carnitine (mitochondrial transport), beta oxidation defects, pyruvate carboxylase deficiencies, and porphyria (which requires a high-carbohydrate diet). In the process of breaking down fat, ketone bodies are produced and transported into our central nervous system for direct use in energy production or indirectly affecting a myriad of metabolic pathways leading to the "miracle of seizure reduction" (Lutas and Yellen, 2013). Ketone bodies also suppress our appetite and it is often difficult to get a lethargic, acidotic, dehydrated child to eat a 90% fat meal without vomiting. Many centers have used a "kinder, gentler, gradual" advancement without fast initiation. They instead used the gradual caloric advancement approach of the 4:1 ratio and reported similar success in seizure reduction at 3 months in 41 patients compared with 81 historical fasting controls. Both protocols achieved strong ketosis by the 5th day discharge, the gradual protocol about 1 day later than the fasting. Side effects were reduced by about twothirds, and interventions were significantly fewer in the gradual protocol, with less weight loss, mild and severe hypoglycemia, dehydration, acidosis, need for bicarbonate and intravenous fluid administration. Vomiting was not quantified but rather reported as present or not, and occurred in both groups. Additional days needed in the hospital were also reduced in the gradual group compared with the fasting group, with a dropout rate of 4% compared with 8% in the fasting group (very low, overall) (Bergqvist et al. With this data in hand many centers stopped the fasting process for their routine admission and use it only when speed of achieving ketosis is of the essence, as with a child in status epilepticus (Cobo et al. The gradual initiation protocol has been modified, acid oxidation are rare, screening is not infallible. We have picked up a handful of children with beta-oxidation defects during admission in the past 20 years. The amount of education provided is limited and it requires that the family live near the epilepsy center to minimize time traveling. However, centers that use out-patient initiation often have a higher dropout rate before the 3-month mark when effectiveness is typically determined, perhaps due to the above factors (Levy et al.

References:

  • https://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v045i03/v45i03.pdf
  • https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/preface/0/1/3/4/0134797108.pdf
  • https://www.anacapadental.com/patientresources/TPedentulousMandible7.pdf
  • https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12944-020-01271-1.pdf